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Hannah Mackay This unit is designed for 9 th grade students in a college preparatory Freshmen Literature and Composition course within an urban high school. The student population consists of ethnically, racially, and linguistically diverse students. There is one student with vision impairment. Most of the students are reading and writing at grade level; few are a grade level behind in writing and reading. The main text for this 4-week unit is Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451. This award-winning novel is chosen for its valuable place in the American literary canon as well as its frequent representation on challenged and banned book lists. The novel will be used to investigate the themes of censorship, social justice, and activism. I aim to empower my students to become leaders of their generation; the themes explored will provide them opportunities to consider how these issues are present buy essay online cheap self discpline their own lives. In recent history, our nation has faced the Occupy Movement, which has shed light on the disparities in our national banking system. Additionally, we still see people facing injustices because of their gender (unequal pay), or sexual orientation (gay marriage). Students need to be well equipped with their own opinions and understanding of these themes so they can positively influence change in their communities and society at esl annotated bibliography ghostwriting service for mba consideration to the diversity within the classroom, the novel will be supplemented with non-canonical short stories from multicultural and female writers. Students will read and examine “The Censors” by Luisa Valenzuela and “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson. Both short stories deal with the critical themes of censorship and social justice and provide additional societal contexts for students to investigate how the themes are portrayed. Students will also investigate historical and informational texts, namely the “First Amendment” of the United States Constitution and the Preface of To Read or Not to Read by Dana Gioia. According to the Common Core State Standards Initiative, Fahrenheit 451 is representative of the complexity, quality, and range of reading appropriate for students in grades 9-10. With consideration of where this unit falls within Beers and Probst (2013) analysis of text complexity, the themes and instruction within this unit provide students with a more demanding course work in the dimensions of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge on demands. With understanding of the complex nature, many different learning styles and preferences are considered and utilized throughout the unit and appropriate scaffolds and accommodations are provided so all students have buy essay online cheap odyssey and realtionships to the content and material. Instructional strategies are guided by constructivist based help writing my paper marketing strategy and ecommerce and culturally responsive pedagogy (Gay, 2010). Students are encouraged to bring their prior experiences and knowledge into the classroom as the basis for building meaning. Students will routinely participate in free writing activities and in Socratic discussions where their ideas will be explored, expanded, and re-conceptualized as necessary. This unit provides students with many opportunities to work collaboratively with their peers as they inspect the themes cheap write my essay narmer palette essay multimodal lenses. Additionally, students will routinely share their work with the class via Open Mic, where students will go to the front of the room and present in no pre-determined order. Students will research issues and themes online and they will share ideas with their classmates using an online collaboration application, Padlet. Incorporating multimodal instruction and application in the classroom is essential in preparing students for entry into their adults lives within our technologically advanced, globalized world. Students are encouraged to see themselves as “agents of change” (Villegas & Lucas, 2002) as they investigate the themes of censorship, social justice, and activism, and consider how the themes are represented in their own lives. Students will gain multicultural perspectives as they read literature from diverse authors and construct meaning from the viewpoints of their classmates, experts, and authors presented throughout the unit. Students will be actively and effectively involved in collaborative work to gain skills in leadership and team building. Students will evaluate their own thoughts and the readings using integrative technology in meaningful ways that will prepare them for citizenship in our technologically globalized world. Students will actively participate in class discussions and routinely share their written work for peer and teacher feedback. Students will connect the themes from different information and fiction texts to gain a greater understanding of the complexity of the themes. Students will critique the effectiveness of their tone and voice for varying audiences of writing. Students refine their own individualized writing process as they design each stage of the process in various writing assignments. Students will write frequently in multiple genres for varying audiences. Students will meet many of the Common Core Standards for 9 th Grade. PA Common Core Standards. 1.2 Reading Informational Texts. CC.1.2.9-10.A: Key Ideas and Details: Main Ideas CC.1.2.9-10.B-C: Key Ideas and Details: Text Analysis CC.1.2.9-10.D: Craft and Structure: Point of View CC.1.2.9-10.E: Craft and Structure: Text Structure CC.1.2.9-10.H: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: Evaluating Arguments CC.1.2.9-10.I: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: Analysis Across Texts CC.1.2.9-10.J: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CC.1.2.9-10.L: Range of Reading. 1.3 Reading Literature. CC.1.3.9-10.A: Key Ideas and Details: Theme CC.1.3.9-10.B: Key Ideas and Details: Text Analysis CC.1.3.9-10.C: Key Ideas and Details: Literary Elements CC.1.3.9-10.D: Craft and Structure: Point of View CC.1.3.9-10.F: Craft and Structure: Vocabulary CC.1.3.9-10.K: Range of Reading. CC.1.4.9-10.A: Informative/Explanatory CC.1.4.9-10.B: Informative/ Explanatory: Focus CC.1.4.9-10.C: Informative/ Explanatory: Content CC.1.4.9-19.D: Informative/ Explanatory: Organization CC.1.4.9-19.E: Need motivation write my paper xmas Explanatory: Style CC.1.4.9-19.F: Informative/ Explanatory: Conventions of Language CC.1.4.9-10.G: Opinion/ Argumentative CC.1.4.9-10.K: Opinion/ Argumentative: Style CC.1.4.9-10.M: Narrative CC.1.4.9-10.O: Narrative: Content CC.1.4.9-10.Q: Narrative: Style CC.1.4.9-10.R: Narrative: Conventions of Language CC.1.4.9-10.S: Response to Literature CC.1.4.9-10.T: Production and Distribution of Writing: Writing Process CC.1.4.9-10.U: Technology and Publication CC.1.4.9-10.V: Conducting Research CC.1.4.9-10.W: Credibility, Reliability, and Validity cheap write my essay narmer palette essay Sources CC.1.4.9-10.X: Range of Writing: Write Routinely. 1.5 Speaking and Listening. CC.1.5.9-10.A: Comprehension and Collaboration: Collaborative Discussion Best essays ghostwriters service usa Comprehension and Collaboration: Evaluating Information CC.1.5.9-10.D: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas: Purpose, Audience, and Talk CC.1.5.9-10.F: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: Multimedia CC.1.5.9-10.G: Conventions of Standard English. Formative assessment is incorporated daily throughout the unit. Regularly, the teacher will assess students’ prior knowledge using a digital collaboration tool called Padlet. Students will use devices to key their ideas onto a wall (kind of like FaceBook), where the teacher can quickly read and assess their responses. The teacher will ask students clarifying questions if their posts are unclear. The teacher and the students will revisit students’ initial ideas about a topic and will refine the definition or concept until it is clear and correct. Students will complete an online vocabulary blog using Edmodo. They will also routinely write responses in their Reading Journals, which are binders with notebook paper for notes and responses and handouts from the unit. The teacher will collect Reading Journals once a week and will read through student Edmodo Vocabulary blogs weekly and provide digital comments. The teacher will provide written feedback on each weekly. The teacher will also assess student learning through active listening during discussions and group work, and will keep track of participation on a seating chart graph. During writing assignments, students are required to get their ideas and plans “approved” before they begin drafting. The approval process gives the teacher the opportunity to review what students are working on and to provide feedback for improvement. It also gives the students the ability to ask questions and seek further clarification. Additionally, The teacher will also employ tickets out the door, reflections, and mini quizzes to formatively assess student understanding of the tasks and themes taught in class. The teacher will keep track of student participation in classroom discussion using a seating chart tracker. All work turned in to the teacher will be returned to the student with written/oral feedback. Students will also complete various writing assignments throughout the unit to assess their comprehension and understanding of the content within the novel and their acquisition of new skills. In addition to writing in multiple genres, students will complete a culminating project where they will write and create visuals of their imaginative sequel to Fahrenheit 451. Bradbury’s novel ends with many unanswered questions and little resolve to the societal issues it presents. Students will brainstorm, plan, organize, and draft the synopsis to its sequel. Students will also create visual representations to scenes from their sequel and identify how the sequel handles the major themes discussed in the unit: censorship, social justice, and activism. Students will share their finished projects with the class and turn them in for assessment. The students will also write reflections on their process and final product. The teacher will provide written and oral feedback on their finished buy essay online cheap jfk assasination theory in conjunction with their grade. Lessons Scope & Sequence. Lesson 1: Introduction to Censorship; “The Censors” Learning objective: Through exploration of their own ideas and analysis of short story, students will develop their own definitions of censorship. Essential Question: How do you define censorship? Using what they know about censorship, students will identify a purpose question (PQ) and begin reading “The Censors” by: Luisa Valenzuela. The short story reveals an instance when a man censored his own letter because he was trying to conform to the practices of his workplace. Using contextual scientific research and essays academic journals, students will define censorship. The students will use Padlet, a digital collaboration application, to share their ideas with the class. Students must have a strong understanding of censorship before beginning the novel. Lesson 2: The First Amendment. Learning objective: Using online resources, students will determine what freedoms are protected by the United State Constitution’s First Amendment. Essential Question: Based on the constitutional rights afforded in the First Amendment, what forms of censorship are legal in the United States? Students will work in collaborative groups to investigate the freedoms afforded to United States citizens in the First Amendment using the U.S. Courts website. Students will determine what the constitution protects and what is does not by analyzing key court cases. Students will identify when censorship/book banning is legal in the U.S. Students will present their findings to the class. This lesson provides students an opportunity to conduct research online to further develop their understanding of censorship. Lesson 3: Judge a Book by its Cover ; Fahrenheit 451 Part 1: p. 3-18. Learning objective: Students will make preliminary predictions about Fahrenheit 451 based on the cover information and explore effectiveness of figurative language in the first few pages of the novel. Essential Questions: What predictions can be made about the story? How does figurative language impact meaning in a text? Students will analyze cover details and the first line of the novel. They will establish a purpose question for reading and they will make predictions about the story. Professional scholarship essay writer site us will identify examples of figurative language in Alecia Keys song titled “This Girls is on Fire” and then analyze how figurative language impacts meaning. Fahrenheit 451 is riddled with figurative language and students must understand how and why it is used. Lesson 4: Burning Books; Fahrenheit 451 ; Part 1: p. 3-18. Learning objective: Students will investigate the history buy essay online cheap causes for 1980s debt crisis instances where Fahrenheit 451 was banned and determine if the reasons were constitutionally just. Essential Question: What are constitutionally legal reasons for banning books and websites from schools? After reviewing a list of Bestselling books that have been banned or challenged, the teacher will hone in on Fahrenheit 451 and provide the history of its challenges via Prezi and a video clip from a news report about the 2006 ban in Texas. Students will consider the common challenges reported to the Office of Intellectual Freedom, and determine if the Fahrenheit 451 could be justly banned from schools based on the First Amendment protections. Students will read an opinion article from the New York Times titled, “Are the Web Site Filters too Restrictive at your School?” and will plan and draft a letter to the editor about their viewpoint on the website filter restrictions in their school. Lesson 5: Character Stances; Fahrenheit 451 ; Part 1: p. 18-41. Learning objectives: Students will identify the personal qualities and beliefs held by each of the main characters introduced in the novel thus far. Essential Questions: What beliefs do the characters hold? How do we determine essay paper writing service 800 is the protagonist and antagonist in this dystopian society? Students will analyze the four main characters introduced in the novel through collaborative, interactive stations. Each group will take turns drawing symbols and physical characteristics that represent the characters’ beliefs and qualities. Students will compare characters and discuss how they will determine the protagonists/ antagonists of this dystopia. Lesson 6: Social Justice in Fahrenheit 451; Part 1: p. 18-41. Learning objective: Students will investigate social justice through a historical photograph. They will transfer their knowledge of social justice to critique the society within Fahrenheit 451 . Essential Question: How can photography help us understand social justices and injustices? Students will analyze a historical photograph of Elizabeth Eckford, an African American student who pioneered the desegregation of Little Rock, Arkansas, to gain a greater perspective of social justice. Students will then transfer their knowledge to Fahrenheit 451 and critique the justness of the society. Lesson 7: Montag’s Transformation; Fahrenheit 451 ; Part 1: p. 41-68. Learning objective: Students will determine life-changing instances in Montag’s life that have influenced his new beliefs. Then, they will consider a life-changing story from their own life and write a brief autobiographical narrative, essay, or poem. Essential Question: How can a moment be life changing? Students will share their ideas about Montag’s transformation using Padlet. They will listen to David Grey’s song titled, “A Moment Changes Everything” and brainstorm instances in their life when they learned a life lesson or their life or beliefs were changed dramatically. Students will go on to brainstorm and draft an autobiographical narrative, essay, or poem. Lesson 8: Beatty’s Point of View; Fahrenheit 451; Part 1: p. 41-68. Learning objective: Students will re-read Captain Beatty’s speech and summarize it into three major arguments that they will connect to their own society. Essential Questions: What issue are you really bothered about? What actions could you take to help you feel less bothered, or to help others feel more bothered? The teacher will re-read Captain Beatty’s speech (p.53-62), while students organize his point of view into three main points. After considering logos, ethos, and pathos, students will compare Beatty’s point of view on society to their own. Lesson 9: Beatty’s Point of View Continued; Fahrenheit 451; Part 1: p. 41-68. Learning objective: In groups, students will compare the content of Captain Beatty’s speech to new ideas from an informational text. Essential Question: How is Fahrenheit 451 a cautionary tale? Students will read the Preface of To Read or Not to Read by Dana Gioia. This informational text examines the societal implications of people not reading as much as they used to. Students will then review Captain Beatty’s argument in light of the Preface, and determine if our modern day society is similar or dissimilar to the one in Fahrenheit 451. Students will individually write a list of ways the societies are similar and dissimilar. Lesson 10: Life Symbols; Fahrenheit 451; Part 2: p. 71-93. Lesson objective: Students will explore symbolism by sharing an object with the class that symbolizes their life. Essential Question: How can the literary concept of symbolism be extended to our own lives? After analyzing the novel’s symbols of the sieve and sand, students will extend the concept of symbolism from the novel to their own lives by presenting an object to the class that symbolizes their life. The object will be accompanied with a brief explanation of how the object functions as a symbol in their life. Lesson 11: Idea Sharing in the Technology Age; Fahrenheit 451; Part 2: p. 93-110. Learning objective: Students will collect ideas about sharing information and will then formulate their own nontraditional ideas of information sharing. Essential Question: As technology continues to infuse every aspect of our lives, how do we effectively share ideas and information? Students will watch and respond to Seth Godin’s TedTalk titled “How to Get Your Ideas to Spread.” This TedTalk expert acknowledges the drastic technological changes and its impact on sharing ideas. Students will consider other effective ways of spreading information after listening to K’Naan’s song titled, “Wavin’ Flag” and learning about his activism in Somalia. Lesson 12: Desperate Housewives/Firemen; Fahrenheit 451; Part 2: p. 93-110. Lesson objective: Students will analyze antagonistic characters through creating a comic strip depicting their average day. Essential Question: How are the antagonist characters similar and dissimilar to ourselves? Students will choose one of the antagonistic characters from the novel and develop a comic strip representing their values, beliefs, activities, and attitudes. Students will use textual evidence to support their comic. Students will use this activity to later compare their own lives to the antagonistic characters. Lesson 13: Consumers of Technology; Fahrenheit 451; Part 2: p. 93-110. Learning objective: Students will consider their own technology as they further conclude whether their society is similar or dissimilar to the one in Fahrenheit 451. Essential Question: How were Bradbury’s predictions of the future of society accurate? Using the data students bring with them to class on their technology use, we will develop a chart that identifies how much time our class spends each day consuming or creating content in digital ways. Students will engage in a debate whether Fahrenheit 451 is similar or dissimilar to their own society using textual evidence and real life examples. Lesson 14: The Chase (Day 1: Create); Fahrenheit 451; Part 3: p. 113-137. Learning objective: Students will work in small groups to create a short video clip of their imagined version of Montag’s famous last words. Essential Question: What final statement could Montag make that could have lasting effects on his community? Students will consider Montag’s circumstances and estimate how long of a final statement he would have time to make before the hound captured and killed him. Based on the timeframe agreed upon, students will work in small groups to brainstorm, plan, and film a short video clip of Montag’s famous last words. Videos will be streamed together on a private YouTube channel and will be watched in class. Students will rate the films based on effectiveness. Lesson 15: The Chase (Day 2: Present); Fahrenheit 451; Part 3: p. 113-137. Learning objective: Students will view one another’s video clips of Montag’s last words and will rate them on effectiveness. Essential Question: What make a statement compelling? The teacher will put all the student video clips on a streamlined YouTube video on the class’s private YouTube Account. Students will watch all the videos and rate them on effectiveness. Students will engage in a conversation about what made videos the most compelling. Lesson 16: Scapegoats; “The Lottery” Learning objective: Students will connect the history and practices in “The Lottery” to those in Fahrenheit 451 . Essential Question: Why should we question traditional practices? The teacher and students will read “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson aloud in class. The short story describes the traditional practice of a particular community where they sacrifice someone (kill them via stoning) because it is a custom that appears to may have a made-up history. Students will connect the practices of this society to the practices in Fahrenheit 451 . Lesson 17: The Perfect Ending, Culminating Assessment (Day 1: Introduction) Learning objective: Students will develop a sequel to the novel that addresses the themes discussed throughout the unit: censorship, social justice, and activism. Essential Question: How does an unsatisfying ending impact the audience? Students will be introduced to their final project and will begin working on it. Students will gain teacher approval for their brainstorming and planning phases. The project: students will brainstorm, plan, organize, and draft the synopsis of their imagined sequel to the novel. Students will illustrate scenes from gender discrimination in bangladesh essay sequel and will clearly describe how the sequel handles the major themes presented throughout the unit. Lesson 18: The Perfect Ending, Culminating Assessment (Day 2: Workshop) Learning objective: Students will develop a sequel to the novel that addresses the themes discussed throughout the unit: censorship, social justice, and activism. Essential Question: How does an unsatisfying ending impact the audience? Students will use the class workshop period to brainstorm, plan, organize, and draft the synopsis of their imagined sequel to the novel. Students will illustrate scenes from their sequel and will clearly describe how the sequel handles the major themes presented throughout the unit. Students will engage in peer review. Lesson 19: The Perfect Ending, Culminating Assessment (Day 3: Workshop) Learning objective: Students will develop a sequel to the novel that addresses the themes discussed throughout the unit: censorship, social justice, and activism. Essential Question: How does an unsatisfying popular analysis essay writers for hire online impact the audience? Students will use the class workshop period to brainstorm, plan, organize, and draft the synopsis of their imagined sequel to the novel. Students will illustrate scenes from their sequel and will clearly describe how the sequel handles the major themes presented throughout the unit. Students will engage in peer review. Lesson 20: The Perfect Ending, Culminating Assessment (Day 4: Present) Learning objective: Students will share their final projects with the classmates. They will turn in their project for assessment. Essential Question: How does an unsatisfying ending impact the audience? Students will read their synopses to the class via Open Mic presentations, and will describe their visuals and how their sequel handles the major themes discussed during the unit. Classmates will be given time to ask questions. Beers. K., & Probst, R.E. (2012). Notice and Note. Portsmouth, English: Heinemann. Bradbury, R. (1953). Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine Books. Common Core States Standard Initiative. (2013). Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Gioia, D. (2007). To read or not to read. (pp. 5-6). Washington, D.C.: National Endowment of the Arts. Jackson, S. (1991). “The Lottery.” The Lottery and Other Stories. New York, NY: Farrar. 291-302. ValenzuelaL. (1988). The censors. Willimantic, CT: Curbstone Press. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.