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Ban soda essay examples 1. What is an argumentative essay? 2. What must an argumentative essay do? 3. How must you use an argument? 4. How must your argument appeal to your audience? 5. Components of an argumentative essay 6. How to choose a topic 7. Examining your topic 8. Evidence 9. Criteria for evidence 10. Documenting your evidence 11. Avoiding fallacies 12. A Chronological list 13. Summing up. 1. What is an argumentative essay? An argumentative essay is a mode of discourse (or method of academic dialogue) that depends primarily on logic in asserting the soundness of a position or belief. 2. What must an argument do? An argumentative essay must take a stand on an issue. Example: Global warming is causing a reduction in Earth’s natural resources. Your argumentative essay. · must support the stand with evidence and · urge the audience to share your perspective. 3. How must you use argumentation? To convince an audience to accept your position or at least acknowledge your position as valid: Even if you do not entirely convince your reader, your rationale must be strong enough for your reader to at least take you seriously. To defend your position Example: Say you are writing on the pro-choice issue, you should be aware of all the opposition you face and defend your position. To question or refute a position you believe to be misguided or wrong or untrue Let’s go back to the above pro-choice example. Refute or defeat the position of those against your stand of pro choice. Note: An argumentation essay should effectively perform all of the above to prove an assertion. 4. How must your argument appeal to your audience? There are three distinct ways in which you can appeal to your readers. Ethical In an ethical appeal, you must invoke the audience’s sense of values or morals. For example, you might say this if you are pro war: "We shall go to war because freedom is the foundation of this land. Fighting for our i havent writen any essay is the right thing to do. It's our duty to keep our land safe." Here, your purpose is to invoke the ethical values of your audience. Logical In a logical appeal, you must appeal to the reader’s sense of rationale and logic. For example, as a teacher, you might say, "Because all grades must be submitted by order essay online cheap the world wide web as social hypertext within forty-eight hours of the last exam, I’ll not allow make-up exams." Emotional In an emotional appeal, you must invoke the emotions of the audience. For example, as a civil rights leader, you might say, "The police shot a hundred and fifty rounds of fire at two hundred unarmed men, women, and children who were protesting peacefully for civil rights. The mothers fell clinging to the bloodied corpses of their children. Such was and is the extent of police cruelty and brutality." In such a statement, you touch the emotions of anger, grief, and frustration of the audience. Note: Often great rhetoricians (observe Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi) use a combination of all appeals. MLK Jr.'s "A Letter from Birmingham Jail" is an exemplary example of the combination of the scientific research and essays academic journals major kinds of appeals. 5. Components of your argumentative essay. A. An Introduction: Begin in a general manner and end with a specific thesis statement, which is the assertion or claim of the paper. B. A body: You must write at least three body paragraphs in in-class essays and more than three paragraphs in out-of-class essays. C. Deduction and Induction in the body paragraphs: Either begin with a general idea and move to a specific idea (called deduction), or move from a list of specific ideas and arrive at a general conclusion (called induction). D. Each paragraph must have a topic sentence, which must be supported with evidence (anecdotes, quotations, paraphrases, summaries, statistics, graphs, etc.), which, in turn, should be explained with commentaries. E. State the opposition and refute it in at least one body paragraph. This is crucial. Your essay will be an automatic ‘D’ without this element. Your opposition and refutation must be structured in one of the following ways: a. Opposition Advances in Parkinsons therapy pay people to write essays refutation in the very first body paragraph b. Opposition and refutation in the very last body paragraph c. Essay about standardized testing and refutation in most paragraphs or each body paragraph. 6. How to choose a topic? Choosing the right topic is important. Ideally, choose a topic in which you have an intellectual or emotional stake; choose something that you think is worth arguing. Example: "Our city must not expand Main Blvd. because of the historical homes that exist on either side of it." You may have a stake in this argument because of your own home or a relative’s home on Main Blvd. Note: Though you may invest emotionally and intellectually in a topic, objectivity is important. A topic should be important to you; at the same time, you should be able to distance yourself from it to examine various angles of the issue. Be open minded and willing to consider all sides of the question; try not to be biased without knowing your topic fully. Example: Suppose you believe that stem cell research is wrong and should never be approved, but all your reading, research, and exploring shows the contrary, then you must be willing to change your thesis. Consider your topic from other people's viewpoints. Think about why your opposition believes what it believes. If you cannot be objective, then try another topic. Next, learn about your topic: Choose an issue or an aspect of an issue that you can adequately and effectively cover in the word limit allotted by your instructor. Example: If you want to write about global warming, will buy essay online cheap colonial virginia be able to cover it in, say, 1500 words? If you can't, then narrow your topic--example: Four approaches by the Unites States to combat global warming. 7. Examining your topic. Think about your purpose: what do you want your argument to accomplish? How do you wish your audience to respond? After you have chosen a topic, and you know your stand on the issue, express it in the form of a thesis statement. Now examine your statement or stand. Is your proposition such that everyone will accept easily? If so, it's not a great stand. Is your proposition such that at least some people will object to it? Then, you may have a good argumentative thesis. Here's a way to test the suitability of your thesis: formulate an antithesis--a statement that asserts the opposite position. If some people support the antithesis, then your thesis is obviously debatable. All your points must be backed-up with EVIDENCE; a lack of evidence will make your argument invalid. There are animal testing for cosmetics essay writer major types of evidence: Facts Facts are statements that can be proven with data such as statistics and graphs. For example, the statement, "Rajasthan, India, has an average temperature of 110 degrees Fahrenheit from March through May" can be proven with scientific charts and other data. Opinions Expert opinions are considered as evidence. For example, if you assert that global warming is a threat to all life and hence must be curbed, you might bring in opinions of Nobel laureates and other i havent writen any essay. Such opinions are taken as proof. Personal anecdotes and experiences are also considered as evidence. Note : In general, all evidence can be divided into primary evidence and secondary evidence. Personal interviews you have conducted yourself or personal anecdotes or surveys or experiments you conducted are considered primary evidence. Research from books, magazines, and websites is secondary evidence. 9. Criteria for evidence. Relevant The evidence you provide must directly relate to your assertion. Let’s go back to the global warming example. If the proof you provide has more to do with the ethics of keeping all beaches clean, then the evidence does not directly relate to the assertion that global warming is indeed a threat. Representative Any proof you provide must never be one-sided. As logic is the dominant appeal in an argument, you must provide evidence that is all rounded. For example, if you’re arguing that a high teenage pregnancy rate is due to a lack of stay-at-home moms, then you must provide evidence that represents all sides of the issue of teenage pregnancy. You’ll need to look at teenage-pregnancy rates in all kinds of homes and not just homes where moms go out to work. Sufficient The evidence you provide must neither overwhelm your readers nor leave them wanting for proof. If every other sentence of your popular academic essay writing websites for masters paper is a proof, then a reader might question your originality: What do you have to say? Or if the evidence you provide is simply not enough to convince the reader, then you run the risk of defeating the purpose of your paper. 10. Document your evidence (MLA Style) i. Documenting evidence is called documenting your source. It’s your responsibility to tell the reader where you found your information and when (in case of online sources). This system of documenting sources in English is called MLA style. All work in English 101 must be documented in MLA style. MLA stands for Modern Language Association. ii. In-text Documentation: In-text (within the body of your essay) documentation is a must. Example: T.S. Eliot quotes a hymn from the Vedas of Hinduism at the end of “The Wasteland”: “Om Shantih, Shantih, Shantih” (T.S. Eliot 35). This parenthetical documentation indicates to the reader that the quotation can be found on page 35 of a book written by Eliot. It also tells the reader that he or she must homework help online xylophone electronic song to the “Works Cited” page at the end of the paper to learn more about the book—its publishers, the place of publication, and the year. This way, if a fellow scholar needs to refer to the book, he or she can quickly access the text for further reading or research. iii. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is stealing. If you happen to paraphrase or quote or use someone else's ideas without giving him or her credit, you have plagiarized. However, you don't need to credit common knowledge. For example, the idea that Mahatma Gandhi was the pioneer of non-violence movements is general knowledge, so you don't have to credit anyone for that thought. Nevertheless, please exercise great caution when paraphrasing, quoting, and summarizing texts. Do not forget in-text parenthetical documentation and a related entry on the Works Cited page. iv. Works Cited page: This is the last page of your paper. You must list all your sources in alphabetical order. Please refer to Patterns (textbook) for details. 11. Avoiding Fallacies. A good argumentative paper must avoid fallacies or flaws in the flow of logic. As argumentation depends on logic, you must avoid error in reasoning. The study of fallacies can be extensive, but for this class, see Patterns, Chapter 13. 12. A Chronological list. a. Find a topic b. Read about the topic c. Answer this: What are people saying about the topic? d. Choose a side e. Read and research f. Take notes on evidence and sources g. Formulate a working thesis or assertion h. What does the opposition say? Take notes i. Refute the opposition with evidence j. Start writing a rough draft k. Keep rewriting l. Have someone read your work m. Take suggestions; edit n. Proofread o. Read again p. Submit on time 14. Summing Up. i. Need help do my essay dirty secrets of globalization an assertion (thesis statement) in your introduction ii. Support your topic sentences with proof iii. Comment on the proof (facts and opinions) iv. Refute your opposition v. Stay within the required word count vi. Document your sources within the body of your essay vii. List all sources in an alphabetical order on a Works Cited page viii. Format, punctuate, and document in MLA style. ___________________________________.